Momentum-space Landau levels in driven-dissipative cavity arrays

Published in Physical Review A, 2016

Andrei C. Berceanu, Hannah M. Price, Tomoki Ozawa, and Iacopo Carusotto
Phys. Rev. A 93, 013827 (2016)

We theoretically study the driven-dissipative Harper-Hofstadter model on a two-dimensional square lattice in the presence of a weak harmonic trap. Without pumping and loss, the eigenstates of this system can be understood, in certain limits, as momentum-space toroidal Landau levels, where the Berry curvature, a geometrical property of an energy band, acts like a momentum-space magnetic field. We show that key features of these eigenstates can be observed in the steady state of the driven-dissipative system under a monochromatic coherent drive and present a realistic proposal for an optical experiment using state-of-the-art coupled cavity arrays. We discuss how such spectroscopic measurements may be used to probe effects associated both with the off-diagonal elements of the matrix-valued Berry connection and with the synthetic magnetic gauge.