Superfluid Vortices in Four Spatial Dimensions

Ben McCanna and Hannah M. Price
arXiv:2005.07485

https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.07485

Quantum vortices in superfluids have been an important research area for many decades. Naturally, research on this topic has focused on two and three-dimensional superfluids, in which vortex cores form points and lines, respectively. Very recently, however, there has been growing interest in the quantum simulation of systems with four spatial dimensions; this raises the question of how vortices would behave in a higher-dimensional superfluid. In this paper, we begin to establish the phenomenology of vortices in 4D superfluids under rotation, where the vortex core can form a plane. In 4D, the most generic type of rotation is a "double rotation" with two angles (or frequencies). We show, by solving the Gross-Pitaesvkii equation, that the simplest case of equal-frequency double rotation can stabilise a pair of vortex planes intersecting at a point. This opens up a wide number of future research topics, including unequal-frequency double rotations; the stability and reconnection dynamics of intersecting vortex surfaces; and the possibility of closed vortex surfaces.