Curved vortex surfaces in four-dimensional superfluids: II. Equal-frequency double rotations

Ben McCanna and Hannah M. Price

As is well-known, two-dimensional and three-dimensional superfluids under rotation can support topological excitations such as quantized point vortices and line vortices respectively. Recently, we have studied how, in a hypothetical four-dimensional (4D) superfluid, such excitations can be generalised to vortex planes and surfaces. In this paper, we continue our analysis of skewed and curved vortex surfaces based on the 4D Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that certain types of such states can be stabilised by equal-frequency double rotations for suitable parameters. This work extends the rich phenomenology of vortex surfaces in 4D, and raises interesting questions about vortex reconnections and the competition between various vortex structures which have no direct analogue in lower dimensions.